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1. Official documents
- Charter of European Cities & Towns Towards Sustainability, European Conference on Sustainable Cities & Towns in Aalborg, Denmark, 1994
- European Sustainable Cities Report, Expert Group on the Urban Environment, European Commission, 1996
- The Habitat Agenda, Istanbul Declaration on Human Settlement, UN Documents, 1996
- Aalborg Commitments and Aalborg +10- Inspiring Futures, 2004
- A Digital agenda for Europe, European Commission, 2010
- Making our cities attractive and sustainable. How the EU contributes to improving the urban environment, European Commission, 2010
- Renewable energy – Investing in energy and resource efficiency, United Nations Environment Programme, 2011
- Basque Declaration – New Pathways for European Cities and Towns to create productive, sustainable and resilient cities for a liveable and inclusive Europe, 2016
- WORLD CITIES REPORT, UNHABITAT / United Nations Human Settlements Programme, 2016
- Horizon 2020, Work Programme 2018-2020, Topics related to Cities and Urban Development. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/futurium/en/urban-agenda-eu/horizon-2020-work-programme-2018-2020
- Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the council, the European central bank, the European economic and social committee, the committee of the regions and the European investment bank: An Investment Plan for Europe. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/finance/docs/law/171011-communication-banking-union_en.pdf
2. Scientific references
2a. (Urban) Sustainability
- STREN, R., WHITE, R., WHITNEY, J., (1992). Sustainable cities: urbanization and the environment in international perspective. Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England, Westview Press.
- DOBSON, A., (2003). Social justice and environmental sustainability: ne’er the twain shall meet. Just sustainabilities: Development in an unequal world, pages 83-95.
- BULKELEY, H., BETSILL, M., (2005). Rethinking Sustainable Cities: Multilevel Governance and the ‘Urban’ Politics of Climate Change. Environmental Politics, Volume 14, Issue 1, pages 42-63
- LARSSEN, K., et al., (2011). Environmental scenarios and local-global level of community engagement: Environmental justice, jams, institutions and innovation. Futures, Volume 43, Issue 4, pages 413–423.
- AGYEMAN, J., (2013). Introducing just sustainabilities: Policy, planning, and practice. London: Zed books.
- WAAS, T., HUGE, J., BLOCK, T., VERBRUGGEN, A., WRIGHT, T., BENITEZ-CAPISTROS, F. (2014). Sustainability Assessment and Indicators: Tools in a Decision-Making Strategy for Sustainable Development. Sustainability, 6, 9, pages 5512-5534.
- DEVOLDER, S., BLOCK, T. (2015). Transition Thinking Incorporated: Towards a New Discussion Framework on Sustainable Urban Projects. Sustainability, 7 (3), pages 3269-3289.
- Cities of tomorrow Challenges, visions, ways forward. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/it/information/publications/reports/2011/cities-of-tomorrow-challenges-visions-ways-forward
- Market Place of the European Innovation Partnership on Smart Cities and Communities, Roadmap 2017. Available at: http://eu-smartcities.eu/sites/default/files/2017-08/EIP%20SCC%20Market%20Place%20-%20Roadmap%202017%20Public%20Version.pdf
- European Innovation Partnership on Smart Cities and Communities Operational Implementation Plan: First Public Draft. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/eip/smartcities/
- McCormick, K., Anderberg, S., Coenen, L., & Neij, L. (2001). Advancing sustainable urban transformation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 50, 1–11.
- NÆss, P. (2001). Urban planning and sustainable development. European Planning Studies, 9, 520–524.
2.b Participatory processes
- GLASS, J. J., (1979). Citizen Participation in Planning: The Relationship Between Objectives and Techniques. Journal of the American Planning Association, Volume 45, Issue 2, pages 180-189.
- DYER, M., CORSINI, F., CERTOMÀ, C. (2017). Making urban governance, planning and design a participatory goal. A collaborative urbanism agenda. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Urban Design and Planning, 170 (3).
- KIISKI KATAJA, E., (2017). From the trials of democracy towards future participation. Sitra Memorandum.
- Cornwall, A (2008) Unpacking ‘participation’: models, meanings and practices, Community Development Journal, 43 (3):269-283.
- Hearn G. (2011), Community engagement for sustainable urban futures. Futures 43 357–360
- Leighninger, M. (2011). Using online tools to engage and be engaged by the public. http://faculty.cbpp.uaa.alaska.edu/afgjp/PADM601 Fall 2011/Using Online Tools to Engage The Public_0.pdf
- Mohan G. (2001) Beyond Participation: Strategies for Deeper Empowerment in B Cooke and U Kothari (eds.), in Participation: The New Tyranny, Zed Books, London, 2001
- Platteau, J, (2008) Pitfalls of Participatory Development, Chapter prepared for the United Nations.
- Prahalad C.K., Ramaswamy V. (2004) Co-Creation Experiences: The next practice in value creation. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 18 (3) 5-14
- PytlikZillig LM, Tomkins AJ (2011) Public engagement for informing science and technology policy: what do we know, what do we need to know, and how will we get there? Review of policy research.
- Simon J., Bass T., Boelman V. (2017) Digital Democracy The tools transforming political engagement, NESTA, available at https://www.nesta.org.uk/sites/default/files/digital_democracy.pdf
C.Certomà and M.Pimbert (2015) “Crowdsourcing and Action Research. Fostering peoples participation in research through digital media” in H.Bradbury-Huang (ed.) Handbook of Action Research (4th edition), Sage, New York
2.c Digital cities
- KAIKA, M., and SWYNGEDOUW, E., (2000). Fetishizing the modern city: the phantasmagoria of urban technological networks. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Issue 24(1), pages 120-138.
- KITCHIN, R., (2011). The Programmable City. Environment and Planning B, Issue 38, pages 945-951.
- GREENFIELD, A., (2013). Against the Smart City. Do Projects, New York.
- SÖDESTRÖM O., et al., (2014). Smart cities as corporate storytelling. City, Issue 18/3, pages 307-320.
- AGYEMANM, J., (2015). Sharing Cities: a case for truly smart and sustainable cities. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
- CERTOMÀ, C., DYER, M., POCATILU, L., RIZZI, F., (eds.), (2017). Citizen Empowerment and Innovation in the Data-Rich City. Springer.
2b. ICTs and Crowdsourcing for governance
- HOWE, J., (2006). The rise of crowdsourcing. Wired, Issue 14/6.
- ALBORSA, J., RAMOSB, J. C., HERVASA, J. L. (2008). New learning network paradigms: Communities of objectives, crowdsourcing, wikis and open source. International Journal of Information Management, Vol. 28, pages 194–202.
- BRABHAM, D.C., (2008). Crowdsourcing as a model for problem solving an introduction and cases. Convergence, Issue 14/1, pages 75-90.
- SHIRKY, C., (2008). Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations. Penguin Press, London.
- BRABHAM, D. C. (2009). Crowdsourcing the Public Participation Process for Planning Projects. Planning Theory, Vol. 8, Issue 3, pages 242–262.
- SHAH, N., DHANESH, A., SEETHARAM, D., Case Study: Crowdsourcing for e-Governance, ICEGOV2009, pages 253-258.
- ERICKSON, T., (2010). Geocentric Crowdsourcing and Smarter Cities: Enabling Urban Intelligence in Cities and Regions, 1st International workshop on ubiquitous crowdsourcing, Copenhagen, DK.
- JAIN, R., (2010). Investigation of Governance Mechanisms for Crowdsourcing Initiatives, AMCIS 2010 Proceedings, Paper 557.
- ARUP, (2011) Smart Cities: Transforming the 21st City Via the Creative Use of Technology. Arup, London.
- ESTELLÉS-AROLAS, E., GONZÁLEZ-LADRÓN-DE-GUEVARA, F., (2012). Towards an integrated crowdsourcing definition. Journal of Information Science, Issue 38, pages 189–200.
- SCHUURMAN, D., BACCARNE, B., DE MAREZ, L., MECHANT, P., (2012). Smart Ideas for Smart Cities: Investigating Crowdsourcing for Generating and Selecting Ideas for ICT Innovation in a City Context, Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, Vol. 7, Issue 3, pages 49-62.
- BRABHAM, D.C., (2013). Crowdsourcing. MIT Press.
- BRABHAM, D.C., (2013). The four urban governance problem types suitable for crowdsourcing citizen participation. In BRABHAM, D.C. (ed.) Citizen E-Participation in Urban Governance: Crowdsourcing and Collaborative.
- KOMNINOS, N., PALLOT, M., SCHAFFERS, H., (2013). Special Issue on Smart Cities and the Future Internet in Europe, Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Issue 4, pages 119-134.
- KITCHIN, R., (2014). The real-time city? Big data and smart urbanism. GeoJournal, Issue 79, pages 1–14.
- MOTTA, G., YOU, L., SACCO, D., MA, T., (2014). City Feed: a Crowdsourcing System for City Governance, IEEE 8th International Symposium on Service Oriented System Engineering, pages 439-445.
- CERTOMÀ, C., CORSINI, F., RIZZI, F. (2015). Crowdsourcing urban sustainability. Data, people and technologies in participatory governance, Futures, 74. Slideshow available here.
- CERTOMÀ, C., RIZZI, F., (2015). Smart cities for smart citizens: Enabling urban transitions through crowdsourcing. On Ugec Viewpoints, August 19.
- SHELTON T., et al., (2015). The ‘actually existing smart city’. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, Issue 8/1, pages 13-25.
- ZOGAJ, S., LEICHT, N., BLOHM, I., BRETSCHNEIDER, U., (2015). Towards Successful Crowdsourcing Projects: Evaluating the Implementation of Governance Mechanisms, ICIS 2015 Proceedings.
- MEIJER, A., RODRIGUEZ BOLIVAR, M. P., (2016). Governing the smart city: a review of the literature on smart urban governance, International Review of Administrative Sciences, Vol. 82(2), pages 392–408.
- CERTOMÀ, C., RIZZI, F., (2017) “Crowdsourcing process for citizen-driven governance ” in CERTOMÀ, C., DYER, M., POCATILU, L., RIZZI, F., (eds.), (2017). Citizen Empowerment and Innovation in the Data-Rich City. Springer.
- Afuah, A., & Tucci, C. L. (2012) Crowdsourcing as a solution to distant search. Academy of Management Review, 3/3, 355–375.
- Aitamurto T. (2012) Crowdsourcing for Democracy: A New Era in Policy-Making, Publication of the Committee for the Future | 1/2012 available at https://cddrl.fsi.stanford.edu/publications/crowdsourcing_for_democracy_new_era_in_policymaking
- Bott, M., & Young, G. (2012). The role of crowdsourcing for better governance in international development. J. Hum. Secur., 27, 44–56.
- Schenk, E, Guittard C. (2009) Crowdsourcing: what can be outsourced to the crowd, and why? Technical Report. Available at: http://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00439256/
- Schuurman D, Baccarne B, De Marez L and Mechant P (2012) Smart ideas for smart cities: Investigating crowdsourcing for generating and selecting ideas for ICT innovation in a city context. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research 7(3): 49–62
2c. Digital Social Innovation
- SIMON, J., BASS, T., BOELMAN, V., MULGAN, G., (2017). Digital Democracy: The Tools Transforming Political Engagement. On nesta.org.uk, February 23.
- EU Research & Innovation for and with Cities, Yearly Mapping Report. Available at: https://publications.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/9fb7a8ce-aefa-11e7-837e-01aa75ed71a1
- Collective Awareness Platforms for Sustainability and Social Innovation: An Introduction. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/collective-awareness
- Communication from the commission to the European parliament, the council, the European economic and social committee and the committee of the regions: EU eGovernment Action Plan 2016-2020 Accelerating the digital transformation of government. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/communication-eu-egovernment-action-plan-2016-2020-accelerating-digital-transformation
- Communication from the commission to the European parliament, the council, the European economic and social committee and the committee of the regions: The European eGovernment Action Plan 2011-2015 Harnessing ICT to promote smart, sustainable & innovative Government. Available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=COM:2010:0743:FIN
- Digital agenda for Europe. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/digital-agenda-europe-key-publications
- What next for digital social innovation? Realising the potential of people and technology to tackle social challenges. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/dsi4eu-shaping-future-digital-social-innovation-europe
- Communication to the Commission: Communicating about Europe via the Internet Engaging the citizens. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/ipg/docs/internet-strategy_en.pdf
- European eParticipation Summary Report. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/european-eparticipation-summary-report
- Europe’s Future: Open Innovation, Open Science Open to the World. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/open-innovation-open-science-open-world-vision-europe
- Empowering people, driving change. Social Innovation in the European Union. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/migrant-integration/librarydoc/empowering-people-driving-change-social-innovation-in-the-european-union
- Albors J., Ramos J.C., Hervas J.L. (2008) New learning network paradigms: Communities of objectives, crowdsourcing, wikis and open source International Journal of Information Management 28 194–202
- BEPA (2010) Empowering people, driving change: Social innovation in the European Union available at http://net4society.eu/_media/Social_innovation_europe.pdf
- Chesbrough H. (2003) Open Innovation, Boston, MA, HBS Press.
- Caulier-Grice, J. Davies, A. Patrick, R. Norman, W. (2012) Social Innovation Practices and Trends. A deliverable of the project: “The theoretical, empirical and policy foundations for building social innovation in Europe” (TEPSIE), European Commission – 7 Framework Programme, Brussels: European Commission, DG Research. TEPSIE 1.1
- Davies, A and Simon, J, (2013). Engaging Citizens in Social Innovation: A short guide to the research for policy makers and practitioners. A deliverable of the project: “The theoretical, empirical and policy foundations for building social innovation in Europe” (TEPSIE), European Commission – 7th Framework Programme, Brussels: European Commission, DG Research.
- Davies, A, Simon, J, (2012) ‘The value and role of citizen engagement in social innovation’. A deliverable of the project: “The theoretical, empirical and policy foundations for building social innovation in Europe” (TEPSIE), European Commission – 7th Framework Programme, Brussels: European Commission, DG Research, TEPSIE 5.2; see G Allport, The nature of prejudice, Reading, MA, Addison-Wesley, 1954
- Gerometta J., Haussermann H., Longo G. (2005) Social Innovation and Civil Society in Urban Governance: Strategies for an Inclusive City, Urban Studies, vol. 42:11, pp.2007-2021, 2005
- Seltzer, E., Mahmoudi, D. (2013). Citizen Participation, Open Innovation, and Crowdsourcing. Challenges and Opportunities for Planning. Journal of Planning Literature, 28/1
- van der Havea, R.P., Rubalcaba L- (2016) Social innovation research: An emerging area of innovation studies? Research Policy 45 1923–1935
- Von Hippel E. (2014) Democratising Innovation, Cambridge, MA/London, MIT Press
Sustainability-focused crowdsourcing projects funded by the EU FP7 and H2020 programme:
- sustainable consumerism and green economy (Asset, http://www.asset-consumerism.eu/; EU-InnovatE, http://eu-innovate.com/);
- food production, biodiversity and urban ecology (Capsella, http://www.capsella.eu/ ; Saving Food 2.0, https://savingfood.eu/; WILDTHING, http://www.eeiko.es/ ; Bioeconomy COBWEB, https://cobwebproject.eu/; ConGRESS, https://cobwebproject.eu/);
- air pollution and decarbonisation (Captor, https://www.captor-project.eu/it/; DecarboNet, https://www.decarbonet.eu/; HackAIR, http://www.hackair.eu/; North State, http://northstatefp7.eu/);
- mobility (Crowd4Roads, http://www.c4rs.eu/);
- community-based digital innovation for sustainable models (Make-IT, http://makeitproject.eu/; p2pvalue, https://p2pvalue.eu/ ; Socratic, https://www.socratic.eu/);
- water (POWER, https://www.power-h2020.eu/ );
- health (EXPOSOMICS, http://www.exposomicsproject.eu/);
- participatory landscape and planning (HERCULES, http://www.project-hercules.eu/; ECODISTR-ICT, https://ecodistr-ict.eu/);
- natural disasters (BEYOND, http://www.beyondproject.eu/ ; REAKT, http://www.reaktproject.eu/ ).
EU-funded CAPS projects using crowdsourcing for sustainability governance
|Focuses on carbon reduction strategy definition at a global level by producing a collective knowledge repository enriched by contents from the news and social media.|
|IA4SI||Develops a methodology to assess the socio-economic and political impacts of CAPS initiatives in terms of real potential impact (Self-Assessment Toolkit).|
|P2PVALUE||Develops a new and increasingly significant model of social innovation based on collaborative production by citizens through the Internet.|
|D-CENT||Creates digital tools for communities to share data, collaborate and organize their operations.|
|CAP4ACCESS||The project is aimed at producing maps of accessibility in European cities in the MyAccessible.EU site.|
|CATALYST||Develops collective intelligence tools and make them available, as open source solutions, to social innovation communities for managing complex and unstructured debate in social media environment toward a structured set of ideas|
|CHEST||Provides a forum that will enable entrepreneurs and innovators from across the EU to propose new solutions that have the potential to address key societal challenges, so called ‘social innovation’.|