Here is a list of references to official documents and scientific references.

Please contact us for any suggestions!

1. Official documents


2. Scientific references

2a. (Urban) Sustainability

2.b Participatory processes

2.c Digital cities

  • KAIKA, M., and SWYNGEDOUW, E., (2000). Fetishizing the modern city: the phantasmagoria of urban technological networks. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Issue 24(1), pages 120-138.
  • KITCHIN, R., (2011). The Programmable City. Environment and Planning B, Issue 38, pages 945-951.
  • GREENFIELD, A., (2013). Against the Smart City. Do Projects, New York.
  • SÖDESTRÖM O., et al., (2014). Smart cities as corporate storytelling. City, Issue 18/3, pages 307-320.
  • AGYEMANM, J., (2015). Sharing Cities: a case for truly smart and sustainable cities. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
  • CERTOMÀ, C., DYER, M., POCATILU, L., RIZZI, F., (eds.), (2017). Citizen Empowerment and Innovation in the Data-Rich City. Springer.

2b. ICTs and Crowdsourcing for governance

  • HOWE, J., (2006). The rise of crowdsourcing. Wired, Issue 14/6.
  • ALBORSA, J., RAMOSB, J. C., HERVASA, J. L. (2008). New learning network paradigms: Communities of objectives, crowdsourcing, wikis and open source. International Journal of Information Management, Vol. 28, pages 194–202.
  • BRABHAM, D.C., (2008). Crowdsourcing as a model for problem solving an introduction and cases. Convergence, Issue 14/1, pages 75-90.
  • SHIRKY, C., (2008). Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations. Penguin Press, London.
  • BRABHAM, D. C. (2009). Crowdsourcing the Public Participation Process for Planning Projects. Planning Theory, Vol. 8, Issue 3, pages 242–262.
  • SHAH, N., DHANESH, A., SEETHARAM, D., Case Study: Crowdsourcing for e-Governance, ICEGOV2009, pages 253-258.
  • ERICKSON, T., (2010). Geocentric Crowdsourcing and Smarter Cities: Enabling Urban Intelligence in Cities and Regions, 1st International workshop on ubiquitous crowdsourcing, Copenhagen, DK.
  • JAIN, R., (2010). Investigation of Governance Mechanisms for Crowdsourcing Initiatives, AMCIS 2010 Proceedings, Paper 557.
  • ARUP, (2011) Smart Cities: Transforming the 21st City Via the Creative Use of Technology. Arup, London.
  • ESTELLÉS-AROLAS, E., GONZÁLEZ-LADRÓN-DE-GUEVARA, F., (2012). Towards an integrated crowdsourcing definition. Journal of Information Science, Issue 38, pages 189–200.
  • SCHUURMAN, D., BACCARNE, B., DE MAREZ, L., MECHANT, P., (2012). Smart Ideas for Smart Cities: Investigating Crowdsourcing for Generating and Selecting Ideas for ICT Innovation in a City Context, Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, Vol. 7, Issue 3, pages 49-62.
  • BRABHAM, D.C., (2013). Crowdsourcing. MIT Press.
  • BRABHAM, D.C., (2013). The four urban governance problem types suitable for crowdsourcing citizen participation. In BRABHAM, D.C. (ed.) Citizen E-Participation in Urban Governance: Crowdsourcing and Collaborative.
  • KOMNINOS, N., PALLOT, M., SCHAFFERS, H., (2013). Special Issue on Smart Cities and the Future Internet in Europe, Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Issue 4, pages 119-134.
  • KITCHIN, R., (2014). The real-time city? Big data and smart urbanism. GeoJournal, Issue 79, pages 1–14.
  • MOTTA, G., YOU, L., SACCO, D., MA, T., (2014). City Feed: a Crowdsourcing System for City Governance, IEEE 8th International Symposium on Service Oriented System Engineering, pages 439-445.
  • CERTOMÀ, C.,  CORSINI, F., RIZZI, F. (2015).  Crowdsourcing urban sustainability. Data, people and technologies in participatory governance, Futures, 74. Slideshow available here.
  • CERTOMÀ, C., RIZZI, F., (2015). Smart cities for smart citizens: Enabling urban transitions through crowdsourcing. On Ugec Viewpoints, August 19.
  • SHELTON T., et al., (2015). The ‘actually existing smart city’. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, Issue 8/1, pages 13-25.
  • ZOGAJ, S., LEICHT, N., BLOHM, I., BRETSCHNEIDER, U., (2015). Towards Successful Crowdsourcing Projects: Evaluating the Implementation of Governance Mechanisms, ICIS 2015 Proceedings.
  • MEIJER, A., RODRIGUEZ BOLIVAR, M. P., (2016). Governing the smart city: a review of the literature on smart urban governance, International Review of Administrative Sciences, Vol. 82(2), pages 392–408.
  • CERTOMÀ, C., RIZZI, F., (2017) “Crowdsourcing process for citizen-driven governance ” in CERTOMÀ, C., DYER, M., POCATILU, L., RIZZI, F., (eds.), (2017). Citizen Empowerment and Innovation in the Data-Rich City. Springer.
  • Afuah, A., & Tucci, C. L. (2012) Crowdsourcing as a solution to distant search. Academy of Management Review, 3/3, 355–375.
  • Aitamurto T. (2012) Crowdsourcing for Democracy: A New Era in Policy-Making, Publication of the Committee for the Future | 1/2012 available at
  • Bott, M., & Young, G. (2012). The role of crowdsourcing for better governance in international development. J. Hum. Secur., 27, 44–56.
  • Schenk, E, Guittard C. (2009) Crowdsourcing: what can be outsourced to the crowd, and why? Technical Report. Available at:
  • Schuurman D, Baccarne B, De Marez L and Mechant P (2012) Smart ideas for smart cities: Investigating crowdsourcing for generating and selecting ideas for ICT innovation in a city context. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research 7(3): 49–62

2c. Digital Social Innovation


3. Projects

Sustainability-focused crowdsourcing projects funded by the EU FP7 and H2020 programme:


EU-funded CAPS projects using crowdsourcing for sustainability governance

CAPS projects Description


Focuses on carbon reduction strategy definition at a global level by producing a collective knowledge repository enriched by contents from the news and social media.
IA4SI Develops a methodology to assess the socio-economic and political impacts of CAPS initiatives in terms of real potential impact (Self-Assessment Toolkit).
P2PVALUE Develops a new and increasingly significant model of social innovation based on collaborative production by citizens through the Internet.
D-CENT Creates digital tools for communities to share data, collaborate and organize their operations.
CAP4ACCESS The project is aimed at producing maps of accessibility in European cities in the MyAccessible.EU site.
CATALYST Develops collective intelligence tools and make them available, as open source solutions, to social innovation communities for managing complex and unstructured debate in social media environment toward a structured set of ideas
CHEST Provides a forum that will enable entrepreneurs and innovators from across the EU to propose new solutions that have the potential to address key societal challenges, so called ‘social innovation’.

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